Xiushui County, Jiangxi Province is the main source of the Autumn Harvest Uprising. It is the assembly place and formation place of the first division of the First Division of the First Army of the Workers and Peasants' Revolutionary Army. It is the place where the first military banner of the Communist Party of China was designed, produced, and raised first. Here, the first shot of the Autumn Harvest Uprising was started.
After the Nanchang Uprising, the Heijiang River Workers and Peasants Volunteer Team of the Second Front Army Command Headquarters of the Second Front Army of the National Revolutionary Army failed to catch up with the insurgents and went to Xiushui. From the end of August to the beginning of September, Mao Zedong walked along the border between Hunan and Jiangxi in accordance with the spirit of the "August 7th" meeting of the party and the plan of the Hunan Provincial Party Committee on the autumn harvest riots. Team, Liuyang Workers and Peasants Volunteer Team, Anyuan Workers and Mine Police Team, based on three roads to siege Changsha, held the Autumn Harvest Uprising.
Three revolutionary teams
On the eve of the Autumn Harvest Uprising, three revolutionary contingents were assembled in Xiushui, most of which were members of the Communist Party of China, backbones of the Communist Party, workers' movements, and peasant movement activists. They were the main forces of the Autumn Harvest Uprising.
Formerly the National Revolutionary Army Zhang Fakui, the Guard Regiment was a secretly cultivated team of the Communist Party. The backbone was Ye Ting's independent regiment. The Communist Party member Lu Deming was the leader. The main leaders of the regiment and battalion were Communist Party members and Huangpu Military Academy graduates. On August 1, 1927, the guards first received a telegram from the Nanchang uprising. Then Zhang Fakui went to Jiujiang from Jiujiang to order the guard regiment to go to Jiujiang on standby. Lu Deming discussed with political instructor Xin Huanwen and chief of staff Han Jun that going to Jiujiang is not good for himself. In the name of Zhang Fakui, he called the China Merchants' "Deyi" steamer to the left-behind office of Zhang Fakui's general headquarters, and left Wuhan in the evening to arrive at Yangxin via the Huangpi Pass.
I arrived in Wuning on the morning of the 7th, and learned that the Nanchang Uprising Army had left Nanchang, so it was convenient for Jing'an to reach Fengxin on the 8th. Here, a letter was received from Xia Xi, asking Lu Deming, Han Jun and Xin Huanwen to serve in the Nanchang Uprising Army. After the three of them studied, it was decided that Lu Deming left the team to ask the Party Central Committee in Wuhan, and handed over the command to the deputy commander Yu Sadu and brought them to Xiushui on standby. According to Lu Deming's arrangement, Yu Sadu led the troops around the Gao'an border, proceeded from Fengxin Luofang and Shangfu to Xiushui, and arrived in Xiushui on August 12.
In late July 1927, Su Xianjun, leader of the Liuyang Workers and Peasants Volunteer Team, planned to combine the Pingjiang and Liuyang Workers and Peasants Volunteers Team into the 20th National Revolutionary Army Regiment led by He Long through the introduction of the Party Central Committee to participate in the Nanchang Uprising. Because Su and Yu could not agree as the head of the group, the captain Yu Yimin led the Pingjiang Workers and Farmers volunteer team to return. On August 6, when passing Wuning, he met the guard regiment and entered Wuning County. Two days later, Yu Minmin led a volunteer team and planned to return to Pingjiang by taking Xiushui. On August 12, he met the Guard Regiment again on the outskirts of Xiushui City, and together they attacked the county town of Xiushui, driving away Wang Tianpei's remnant Qiu Guoxuan Regiment. Then retired to repair the water slag Tianjin, Ma Ma area, rest on the spot.
In late July 1927, after the Chongyang Tongcheng Peasant Self-Defense Forces eliminated Wei Shifeng and other reactionary forces, they were untenable because of the enemy's strength. They were led by Ye Chongkai and left Chongyang for Tongcheng. Soon after arriving in Tongcheng, he contacted the Guard Corps and agreed to co-edit with Xiushui. About to leave Tongcheng at the end of August, and drove to Xiushui. When passing through the city of Tongcheng Mai, he was surrounded by the remnants of Xia Douyin, and then rushed out to reach Xiushui Taoshu Port. Two days later, under the auspices of the guards, they stationed in Xiushui.
After the security corps and the Pingjiang Workers and Peasants Volunteer Team stably repaired water, they contacted Su Xianjun in the copper drum. Because the three troops were at any time in danger of "chasing" by the Kuomintang reactionaries, the Guards sent personnel to Nanchang to ask the CPC Jiangxi Provincial Party Committee. Jiangxi Province appointed cadres and colleagues to rush to Xiushui and Tonggu to organize and coordinate the reorganization of the army.
At that time, in order to expand their strength, Zhu Peide, chairman of the KMT Jiangxi Province, also sent Xu Jingxiang to repair the water. He wanted to collect the local armed forces. During the negotiations, the troops marched fatigued for days and refused to go to Yongxiu. In order to blind the enemy, he took the opportunity to prepare for the uprising, and raised the difficult problem of being unadjusted to delay time.
On August 22, the leaders of the three units all considered the situation to be severe and "all military unification cannot be slowed down". They invited the editor conference to be held in Shanshui Town, Xiushui. The three divisions are combined into one division, and the division committee and division are established, and the division is established in Xiushui County. Yu Sadu is the teacher, Yu Minmin is the deputy teacher, and Zhong Wenxun is the chief of staff. The former Guards Regiment was reorganized into a division and division. The head of the division was Zhong Wenhuan. The Liuyang Workers and Peasants Volunteer Team was divided into three divisions. Su Xianjun was the head of the division. The cadre company of the Guard Corps was abolished, and the cadres were assigned to company platoons to serve as company platoon leaders and political workers. In order to strengthen the Third Regiment, another commander Wu Zhonghao and his subordinates were deployed to enrich the Third Regiment.
The Xiushui Party organization actively mobilized and more than 200 local children enthusiastically joined the army. The county government bailiff team had more than 20 people, and Yu Jingbang led more than 100 people to join the First Regiment. Some nearby CCP armed forces also moved closer to a division. After more than 100 people from the Chongyang and Tongcheng Farmers Self-Defense Forces led by Luo Rongrong and others came, they were classified as special agents of the division. In this way, the special agents, the health team, and the blasting team were formed.
There are 8 divisions in the division: deputy officers, staff officers, military officers, ordnance, medical services, and uniforms. The soldiers use Hanyang-made seven or nine rifles. Each battalion and company is also equipped with light and heavy machine guns. Weapons are fully equipped and bullets are abundant.
During the remediation period, the troops made three exercises and two talks every day, actively preparing to wait for the opportunity to participate in the riots. Seen in the county seat of Zihuadun, Majiazhou and other places, there is a busy scene of military training.
After the reorganization, in order to ease the relationship with Zhu Peide, the warlord stationed in Jiangxi, and to facilitate the acquisition of munitions, the temporary division of Jiangxi Provincial Defense Army was temporarily called the first division, and a roster was forged to contact Zhu Peide. At the end of the month, the Central Military Ministry informed the division to prepare for the autumn harvest riots.
Raise the first flag
Before the uprising, according to the instructions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, the staff chief of the division, Yang Lisan, deputy officer, and Chen Shuhua, chief of the staff chief, designed and produced the first banner of our army in the Xiushui County Chamber of Commerce.
In order to make the banner perfectly reflect the connotation of the workers and peasants revolution, everyone thought hard and thought about several plans, but they were not very satisfied. The three men repeatedly compared, deliberated, modified, and argued. In the end, He Changgong had a new idea. He had seen the style of the Soviet Red Army banner while working and studying in France, and proposed a general style that mimicked the Soviet Red Army banner. He designed a red flag with a sickle, axe, and a five-pointed star.
Soon, they produced a military flag according to the design plan. The background color of the flag is red, symbolizing the revolution; the five stars in the center of the flag represent the Communist Party of China; the sickle and axe on the five stars represent the unity of the workers and peasants under the leadership of the Communist Party of China; The white cloth culvert on the side of the banner reads "First Division of the First Army of the Workers and Peasants Revolutionary Army". The meaning of the entire banner is: The First Division of the First Army of the Workers and Peasants Revolutionary Army is the Workers and Peasants Revolutionary Armed Forces under the leadership of the Communist Party of China.
The adoption of the army flag pattern at the operation level and above indicates that the CCP-led workers and peasants revolutionary armed forces have since gained their own banner. After the style of the flag was determined, the division decided to rush to make 100 noodles overnight, and He Changgong immediately organized sewing. At that time, Zhang Lingbin, the class leader of the tailor, and others purchased the cloth, and Xu Guanghua, chairman of the County Federation of Trade Unions, invited tailors and women who knew needlework. The masses hurriedly made 100 military flags day and night, and sewed more than 1,000 red scarves and red armbands at the same time in preparation for the uprising.
After everyone's joint efforts, on September 9, 1927, the first industrial and peasant revolutionary army's banner rose in Xiushui County, flying high.
The first shot of the autumn harvest uprising
On September 9, 1927, the First Division and the First Regiment of the Workers and Peasants Revolutionary Army stationed in Xiushui County came to Zihuadun playground in the county town to gather. Next, Gan Tewu led a more than 200 peasant self-defense force supporting the military operation to the playground with eight tyrants, gentiles and counter-revolutionary evil elements. Subsequently, Fan Ce'an, the head of the party organization in Xiushui County, led the peasant association, the head of the trade union, and thousands of people around the signboards of the county farmers' association and the county federation.
After the team was assembled, Yu Sadu made a brief mobilization speech and solemnly announced the uprising of the First Division of the First Army of the Workers and Peasants Revolutionary Army. The slogan for the announcement of the uprising was: "A red tie is tied to the neck, and only care is given to death!"
When the insurgents went to Xixiukou, Xiushui County, Lu Deming returned from Wuhan. Lu Deming conveyed to the leaders of the division such as Yu Sadu the instructions of the Party Central Committee on the Autumn Harvest Uprising, and assumed the post of Chief of the Autumn Harvest Uprising.
On September 10th, the Division of the Workers and Peasants Revolutionary Army and the First Regiment merged with the four Qiu Guoxuan Regiments in Xiushui Town, and held a military-civilian oath division meeting with thousands of people at the bridgehead of the Zhajin River to promote the Chinese Communist Party's ideas and The purpose of the Autumn Harvest Uprising. After the Zhajin Oath Division meeting, eight local tyrants were put right on the spot. The first and fourth regiments led by Lu Deming set out from Xiushui and advanced vigorously towards Pingjiang.
Late at night on the 10th, the second regiment of the Anyuan Workers and Peasants Armed Forces and the Mine Police announced an uprising in Anyuan and moved towards Pingxiang. On the 11th, Mao Zedong personally directed the third regiment stationed in Tonggu to march toward Liuyang, and the autumn harvest uprising that shocked the border between Hunan and Jiangxi broke out.
Because the revolutionary situation was at a low tide, the enemy was strong and we were weak, and our army lacked combat experience. Some commanders of the insurgent army commanded improperly. At present, the first battalion, the second battalion and the fourth battalion of the Guards Force set off to Changshou Street. In Jinping, 7.5 kilometers away from longevity, the army fought fiercely with Hunan warlord He Jian. The incorporated Qiu Guoxuan four regiments took the opportunity to rebel and attacked our ministry from the left and right sides, causing losses to the second battalion.
After the uprising troops were frustrated, the division immediately returned. After receiving the instructions of Mao Zedong from Sanshuitaizhuang and Sanxiyu to Tonggu Paibu, they joined the Wenjia City, and then went to Jinggangshan to follow Mao Zedong on a new journey.
(Author: Jiujiang CPPCC Literary History and Learning Committee of Jiangxi Province)
Editor-in-chief: Chen Hong_DW103
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