The battle to defend Shanghai's airspace in the early days of liberation

Release time: 2019-12-26 08:56:20 source: "Party History Expo" Hebei Party Network News Hotline: 0311-87908405
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After the liberation of Shanghai, especially on February 6, 1950, after the KMT Air Force launched a large-scale bombardment of Shanghai, the navy and civilians under the leadership of Chen Yi fought a battle to defend Shanghai's airspace. In this struggle, the PLA's first anti-aircraft artillery units were trained, the PLA's first aviation brigade was trained and equipped, and the PLA's first radar battalion, the first airborne surveillance battalion, and the first searchlight group were established. , Won the air dominance of Shanghai and its surrounding areas, protected Shanghai's industrial and agricultural production and the safety of people's lives and property.

-Chen Yi demands to protect the sky of Shanghai-

In the spring of 1951, the Air Defense Forces of the East China Military Region and the Shanghai Air Defense Forces decided to launch the "East China Air Defense" newspaper. At that time, the author participated in the organization and establishment of the newspaper and served as the editor-in-chief. One day, the author went to the Shanghai Municipal People's Government and asked the commander of the East China Military Region and the mayor of Shanghai, Chen Yi, to write the headline of "East China Air Defense" and wrote "to protect the sky of the motherland with the greatest efforts in air defense "Inscription. Chen Yi has always cared and led Shanghai's air defense operations and army building. After the liberation of Shanghai, the KMT Chiang Kai-shek Group had threatened to bombard Shanghai with a plane and turn it into a dark, paralyzed city without water and electricity. Chen Yi has repeatedly convened leaders of the Shanghai Party, Government, and Army to meet to deploy Shanghai's air defense missions. He said: We have liberated Shanghai, we have only liberated the territory, and we have not liberated airspace, Shanghai can only be considered half liberated. Without air control, Shanghai cannot survive. He demanded the rapid establishment of the Shanghai Air Defense Forces to protect Shanghai's sky. In the second half of 1949, the Kuomintang Air Force continued to invade Shanghai, but the scale was not large. Later, under the supervision of Chiang Kai-shek, the Kuomintang Air Force expanded the airport in Zhoushan and mobilized a large number of aircraft. At noon on February 6, 1950, the KMT army launched a total of 17 B-24, B-25 bombers and P-51, P-38 fighters, which bombed Shanghai Electric Power Company, Shanghai South and Zhabei Hydropower Company in four batches. . At that time, the People's Liberation Army had only two antiaircraft artillery regiments in Shanghai, an antiaircraft machine gun platoon, and a radar team that had not yet functioned. It had set up several air surveillance posts and it was difficult to stop the indiscriminate bombing of KMT military aircraft. On that day, more than 60 KMT military planes dropped bombs in Shanghai, destroying more than a thousand houses and injuring more than 1,300 people. Several major power plants and waterworks in Shanghai were severely damaged, and Shanghai's power generation dropped from 150,000 kilowatts to 4,000 kilowatts. Some high-rise elevators are suspended in the air, citizens' toilets cannot be flushed, most factories are forced to suspend production, and Shanghai's economy suffers major losses. The Taiwan authorities and American newspapers and radio stations made such a big fuss. The Kuomintang agents lurking in Shanghai took the opportunity to rumor and destroy, and the Shanghai residents' mood and social order were greatly affected. After the "second six" bombing, Chen Yi immediately convened a responsible party of the Shanghai Party, Government and Army in the city government to arrange a repair, rescue and various emergency measures to mobilize the people in the city to fight the bombing. Chen Yi worked all night in the office that day, and went to the bombed Yangshupu Power Plant to inspect it the next morning, and studied with the workers to restore part of the power generation within 48 hours. At the same time, the existing anti-aircraft guns were transferred to the undisrupted French Merchants Power Company for key protection.

-The formation of the first batch of air defense forces of the PLA-

         In order to strengthen the organization and leadership of Shanghai Air Defense, under the Shanghai Civil Air Defense Committee, an Air Defense Security Committee and Air Defense Security Command have been established with Guo Huaruo, commander and political commissar of Songhu Police Command, and Yang Fan and Cao Manzhi as deputy directors. Songhu Security Command also set up antiaircraft artillery command post. In addition to commanding the 11th and 14th regiments of the antiaircraft artillery originally in Shanghai, the Central Military Commission urgently transferred the 17th and 18th regiments of antiaircraft artillery trained in Shenyang Air Defense School. , Arrived in Shanghai in mid-February. The four anti-aircraft artillery regiments focus on protecting power plants, railway stations, airports, terminals, oil depots and other important places, and taking into account industrial areas. Most of the commanders of the antiaircraft artillery regiment came from infantry. Most of them came from industrial and peasant families and were not highly educated, but they learned very hard to quickly master the technology of modern air defense weapons. In that year, the author visited a rangefinder of an antiaircraft artillery company called Li Jiabin. In the past, he could only write simple words crookedly, but to master the rangefinder, he needed mathematical knowledge such as algebra and triangle. He studied hard and practiced hard. He often carried a rangefinder to the field to take measurements. The cold wind kept his eyes open and his hands and feet became numb. He kept practicing. As soon as I found an airplane or a big bird in the sky, I immediately practiced catching the target. At the beginning, the measurement gap was very large, but he carefully thought about it, after comparing and comparing, measuring and measuring, repeated practice, and finally created the accuracy of the measurement. The highest record of East China Air Defense Forces. Some anti-aircraft gunners used 60 guns in the war years. One 60-gun gun had more than 70 parts, while an ordinary anti-aircraft gun had tens of thousands of parts. The soldiers couldn't master the complicated technology for a while. During the "Two Six" bombing, they saw the bombs falling down, the factory emitting smoke, and their hearts seemed to be torn. After the "two six" bombing, they were fighting while intensifying their training, assaulted to learn theoretical knowledge, and summed up actual combat experience in a timely manner, and their military skills were rapidly improved. On March 1, according to the order of the Central Military Commission, the personnel of the aviation department of the East China Military Region moved from Nanjing to Shanghai, merged with the Shanghai Air Defense Command Air Defense Office and Shanghai Air Defense Command to form the Shanghai Air Defense Command, and Guo Huaruo was the commander and political commissar. In order to strengthen the air-surveillance system in Shanghai, the East China Military Region transferred the first battalion of the 24th Regiment of the Eighth Brigade in Songjiang to Shanghai and converted it into the PLA ’s first air-surveillance battalion. More than a dozen air surveillance posts have been set up at the commanding heights of the Shanghai Municipality and the coastal areas of Chuansha, Nanhui, Fengxian and other counties. The conditions of these surveillance posts are very difficult. There is a surveillance post located in a remote and desolate area. There are no villages within a few kilometers. They have to run 7.5 kilometers to buy oil, salt and tofu. They buy their own food and cook for themselves. , Set up a very humble house to live. Most of the surveillance posts in the urban area are located on the top floor of high-rise buildings, where restaurants, bars, and ballrooms are located. The soldiers could only be on the top floor of the building, constantly monitoring the sky high in the hot sun, cold wind, and heavy rain. Many soldiers had red eyes due to long-term fatigue. The most effective for air surveillance is radar. After the liberation of Shanghai, the Air Defense Office of Songhu Police Headquarters will receive some of the Kuomintang radar technicians and several old radars left over from the Japanese invasion period to form the PLA's first radar team. However, these radars were not repaired during the Kuomintang period. They could not find the aircraft and could not function. After the "Two Six" bombing, Chen Yi instructed that 21 college students graduating from the Department of Electrical Engineering of Shanghai Jiaotong University should be transferred to the radar team to help work. They also asked the teacher Jiang Dazong of Jiaotong University and the chief engineer of Shanghai International Radio Station Qian Shangping for guidance. . In the absence of drawings and equipment and technology, they overcame numerous difficulties and fought day and night for more than a month. Finally, they repaired the radar and made it effective for air surveillance. In May, the Shanghai Air Defense Command's telecommunications battalion (the radar battalion) was formally established.

-Assist the Soviet Air Defense Forces in Shanghai-

          While strengthening the construction of the PLA's air defense forces, the Chinese government and the Soviet Union reached an agreement after the "Two Sixth" bombing. The Soviet Union decided to send more than 3,000 people led by the Moscow Air Force General Bakiski into an aviation group to support Shanghai air defense. A few days after the "Two Six" bombing, General Bakiski arrived in Nanjing by special plane and arrived in Shanghai by train that night. The next morning, he participated in a conference to study the Shanghai air defense deployment hosted by Chen Yi. East China Military Command Deputy Commander Su Yu also came to Shanghai from Nanjing to assist Chen Yi in commanding Shanghai air defense operations. The Soviet command organization and two flight regiments, a searchlight regiment and a radar battalion, successively came to Shanghai to take charge of air defense missions with Shanghai Hongqiao Airport as the center and a 150 km radius (to the east of the coastline). In order to improve the conditions of Shanghai Airport to adapt to the takeoff and landing of Soviet jets, after the "two six" bombing, Shanghai Party, Government, Army and Civil Affairs mobilized to build and expand Jiangwan, Dachang, Longhua and Hongqiao Airports. Chen Yi called for the spirit of moving mountains and reclaiming the sea to overcome difficulties and win time, as in the Huaihai Campaign, to win the new war of Shanghai air defense. More than 200,000 people participated in the construction of the airport, more than 1,000 vehicles were used, and the sand and gravel fleet was full of Huangpu River. In support of Shanghai Air Defense, Zhou Enlai also personally organized and dispatched a large number of grains and materials to Shanghai from Northeast, North China, and Central South. At that time, the author went to various airports for interviews and saw that the soldiers and civilians participating in the construction raided the work day and night. Soviet officers and soldiers also participated in the construction of hangars and other facilities. In March, when the rainy season in the south came, Soviet soldiers were covered with mud while working, but they saw the Chinese comrades smiling and very friendly. It is worth mentioning that this Soviet army is not only good in military technology but also strict in discipline. At that time, the PLA did not implement the rank system, and cadres and soldiers were only slightly different in their upper clothes, which was difficult to distinguish. However, the Soviet soldiers standing guard at the airport, as long as they saw the PLA personnel wearing cadre uniforms, were very saluting. Many radar and searchlight stations are scattered in the suburbs of Shanghai and in the surrounding counties. The living and eating conditions are poor. Soviet officers and soldiers overcome difficulties and work closely with the PLA officers and soldiers. The relationship is very harmonious. The Songhu Security Command has sent more than 10,000 people to take on the vigilance tasks of the airports and Soviet stations in various locations, ensuring the safety of the Soviet army and air defense facilities. After a month of hard work, the tasks of expanding the airport and setting up air surveillance posts, radar stations, and searchlights were basically completed, and the Soviet aviation unit was also in combat readiness. The KMT Air Force, still dreaming of bombing Shanghai, did not realize that Shanghai's air defense system had been established. On March 14, the plane of the Kuomintang Air Force still flew to Shanghai with no fear. Eleven B-24 bombers and two P-51 fighters were attacked by the eleventh regiment of anti-aircraft guns stationed there when they raided Shanghai Longhua Airport and Jiangnan Shipyard. Run away. On the same day, in the Xuzhou area north of Shanghai, a B-25 bomber of the Kuomintang Air Force was shot down by Soviet Bakiski forces. On March 23, a group of Kuomintang planes attempting to invade Shanghai was suddenly met by our plane and one enemy plane was shot down. Then in April, two Kuomintang P-51 aircraft were shot down over Jinshanwei outside Shanghai. On April 28, a P-38 was shot down over the east of Hengsha. Another plane was wounded and crashed when returning to the Zhoushan Islands.

-Shanghai people like watching the night sky fierce battle-

          After suffering setbacks during the day, the KMT Air Force switched to night flight. On May 11, when night fell and people were not yet asleep, the alarm sounded suddenly in Shanghai, the lights of Wanjia suddenly went out, and then there were countless strong searchlights directed at the Shanghai night sky. A B-24 heavy bomber that penetrated into the sky above the urban area was immediately bitten by the cross searchlight. The enemy plane turned around in a panic, but couldn't escape a sharp "sharp sword." At this time, the Soviet fighter entered the airspace to be fought, and then opened fire on the enemy aircraft. The soldiers of the ground anti-aircraft artillery forces saw the enemy aircraft entering the anti-aircraft artillery range, and they also seized the fighter and shot suddenly. . At this moment, many Shanghai residents no longer hide, and rush to the outdoors to look up at the colorful night sky. The enemy aircraft swayed under the strong light, and then suddenly fell down like a meteor toward Pudong. With a loud noise, the fire reflected the night sky of Pudong Tangqiao Town. Then, from all corners of the city, there were applause and laughter congratulating the PLA on the victory of the air battle. However, the anti-aircraft artillery commander who fired the gun without authorization was severely criticized and punished. Because the enemy aircraft was shot down by our air force, ground anti-aircraft guns could not be fired at random. Fortunately, no accidents occurred when they hit their own aircraft. This victory greatly inspired the people of Shanghai Navy and caused great repercussions at home and abroad. The Kuomintang originally intended to use Zhoushan as a base for blockade and bombardment and harassment of Shanghai and East China. However, the People's Liberation Army captured many islands around Zhoushan and was advancing towards the Dinghai Sea in the center of Zhoushan Islands. The Shanghai air defense force was strengthened and the Kuomintang of Zhoushan Islands was strengthened. When the air force poses a serious threat, Chiang Kai-shek had to decide to withdraw the Kuomintang air force from the Zhoushan Islands. The liberation of the Zhoushan Islands lifted the threat of the KMT's short-range aircraft to the Shanghai area and marked the victory of Shanghai's air defense struggle after the "Two Six" bombing. At the end of May, the leaders of the party, government, military, and civilians and representatives from all walks of life gathered together, and Chen Yi chaired a summary and commendation conference.

-The PLA independently shoulders Shanghai's air defense mission-

         In May 1950, according to the decision of the East China Military Command, the former East China Military Command Aviation Department staff who worked at the Shanghai Air Defense Command returned to Nanjing to establish the East China Military Command Air Force Command. The Songhu Security Force has also dispatched a group of cadres to enrich the Shanghai Air Defense Command. In June, the Korean War broke out and the US Seventh Fleet invaded the Taiwan Strait. In July, the Soviet Union decided to support Shanghai ’s air defense Bakiski units to return to China in October, and their weapons and equipment were sold to China at a price. The PLA decided to hire Soviet air defense consultants to come to China. In order to make preparations for receiving the weapons and equipment of the Soviet Union ’s Bakiski troops, in July, the East China Military Region, in accordance with the instructions of the Central Military Commission, decided that the Shanghai Air Defense Command shall control the air defense forces and air forces in Shanghai, and organize and lead the troops in Baki With the help of the Ski Forces, they conduct assault training and receive Pakistan ’s weapons and equipment. In August, the air force leadership of the East China Military Region was moved from Nanjing to Shanghai and merged with the Shanghai Air Defense Command. Nie Fengzhi served as the Air Force Commander and Shanghai Air Defense Command of the East China Military Command. The PLA's first aviation unit, the Air Force's Fourth Mixed Brigade, which has just been adapted by the Army, led tenth and eleventh regiments and moved to Shanghai in late July and early August. The Shanghai Municipal People's Government specially organized a grand welcoming ceremony for air force commanders to pass the bustling Sichuan Road, Nanjing Road, and Huaihai Road in order to announce to the people of Shanghai that we have our own air force. The 10th Regiment of the Fourth Mixed Brigade, successively stationed in Shanghai Longhua, Dachang and Hongqiao Airports, trained with the Soviet MiG-15 jet fighter regiment, and was ready to receive 38 MiG-15 fighters and equipment from the regiment. The 11th Regiment of the 4th Mixed Brigade was stationed at Shanghai Jiangwan Airport. The Soviet pull--11 piston fighter regiment helped train and was ready to receive 39 Re-11 fighters and equipment from the regiment. The flight cadres and pilots of these two regiments were mostly transferred from the PLA Aviation School. They already have a certain theoretical and technical foundation. With the help of the Soviet army, they also conducted theoretical and practical surprise training, and quickly mastered them. The technology of driving MiG-15 and Ra-11 fighters. After ground training, the ground crew has basically mastered the technology of aircraft maintenance. After three months of hard work, the training mission was successfully completed. From October 19, 1950, the Fourth Mixed Brigade officially assumed Shanghai's air defense mission. On August 10, the PLA's first searchlight group was established in Shanghai. The leading cadres of the regiment were selected from East China Military and Political University and the Shanghai Police Force. The main members are 790 trainees from East China Military and Political University, as well as a group of university students assigned from the locality, drivers and technical staff recruited from Shanghai. As soon as the Searchlight Troupe was established, it put in intense training. At that time, the learning conditions were very poor. The house was a temporary thatched shed, which was sheltered by reeds. Tables and stools were nailed to a narrow plank on wooden stakes. Professional subjects are taught by Soviet soldiers. Students do not have textbooks and take notes by themselves. They study an average of 10 to 12 hours a day. After more than 20 days of intensive study, cadres have learned basic command procedures and outline weapons. The trainees then went to the Soviet searchlight command post and various garrison points, and Soviet officers and soldiers taught our army commanders and commanders one by one to command and operate. During this period, Chen Yi had listened to the report of the leaders of the searchlight group and went to the searchlight group to watch the exercise. After more than a month of help, PLA commanders and commanders have mastered all basic skills and successfully received all equipment such as 36 radars and 36 tracking searchlights of the Soviet searchlight group. The cadres of the Shanghai Air Defense Command of the Air Force of the East China Military Region focused on learning from the Soviet Army air combat command, air defense command, and various service support theoretical knowledge and working methods. After assault training, they were capable of the Shanghai air defense mission and completed the first generation of air defense command of the PLA Building. The PLA's antiaircraft artillery and radar units also received a lot of help from the Soviets. After three months of assault training, all preparations for the transfer were completed. In October 1950, at the Shanghai Hongqiao Road Command Post, a signing ceremony was held for the transfer of Bakiski troops and equipment. General Chen Yi and Bakiski represented both parties. signature. On October 27, the PLA officially took over the defense of Pakistan. Chen Yi wrote in a report to Mao Zedong on October 23: "The Shanghai air defense can only rely on us to defend ourselves in the future."

-The PLA firmly holds Shanghai's air supremacy-

On November 30, 1950, the Party Committee of the East China Military Region suggested to the Central Military Commission that the Air Force Command of the East China Military Region and the Shanghai Air Defense Command partially opened. On December 7, the CMC resumed power and agreed. Former East China Air Force Command personnel returned to Nanjing, and Shanghai Air Defense Command was reorganized. Guo Huaruo was also the commander and political commissar, and Wang Zhitao was the deputy commander. In early March 1951, according to the decision of the East China Military Region, the East China Military Region Air Defense Command was relocated from Nanjing to Shanghai and merged with the Shanghai Air Defense Command to become the East China Military Region Air Defense and Shanghai Air Defense Command. Guo Huaruo is still a commander and political commissar. He Minxue and Wang Zhitao served as Deputy commander, Liu Wenwen served as deputy political commissar. Under the unified command of the East China Military Air Defense and Shanghai Air Defense Command, the Shanghai Air Defense Forces work closely with the East China Air Force Air Force and the Navy ’s East China Sea Fleet Air Force in Shanghai to jointly assume Shanghai ’s air defense missions. After the PLA independently assumed the Shanghai air defense mission, it continued to maintain air dominance in Shanghai and its surrounding areas. The Kuomintang Air Force, who dare not to act rashly, still disturbed the area around Shanghai from time to time in the early 1950s. Troops in Shanghai's air defense missions continue to deal heavy blows to enemies. In that year, the author visited Song Zhonghua, a pilot who shot down two enemy planes and injured one enemy plane in Shanghai (later served as the deputy commander of the Fourth Air Force). He told me about the air combat on July 25, 1953. . That morning, six enemy aircraft secretly flew into the Shanghai air defense zone in three batches. Before the enemy arrived, our army accurately grasped the number, type, speed, and course of the enemy aircraft, and our army's battle eagles rose up one after another. When the enemy's first pair of aircraft entered the Shanghai air defense zone, they were intercepted by our army's first aircraft. The second pair of enemy aircraft saw a bad situation and turned away to run southwest. At this time, Song Zhongwen and the wingman pilot increased the throttle and chased in the direction of the ground commander. They first saw two black spots on the surface of the sea, and determined that they were the projection of the aircraft. They caught up, and they found two enemy aircraft flying in formation. When the enemy saw them chasing, they fled in haste. Song Zhongwen called the wingman pilot to catch up with the enemy's wingman and kept his eyes firmly on the enemy's long aircraft. The enemy aircraft chased by Song Chinese was very cunning. It turned up and down, tilted east and west, and did not give Song Chinese a chance to attack. Song Zhonghua chased after him. When the enemy drilled into the cloud, he flew into the cloud to fight; when the enemy fled against the sea, he fought against the sea. The enemy aircraft has not yet escaped from the Shanghai air defense zone. As soon as the turn, Song Zhonghua asked his nose to push the button, and the enemy aircraft responded to the sea. Song Zhongwen destroyed the enemy's long aircraft and chased the enemy's wingman. He chased and struck, wounding the wingman twice and driving out of the Shanghai air defense zone. After several years of hard work, as a commander of the Shanghai air defense mission, as Chen Yi requested, he really protected the sky of Shanghai, so that the economic center of the country, Shanghai, was no longer bombed by the Kuomintang army aircraft, and was strongly supported. Economic construction in Shanghai and the country.

Editor-in-chief: Chen Hong_DW103

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